主題: 此次疫情過后,將改變中國人的20種意識行為!

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169. Don't let yesterday use up too much of today. 別留念昨天了,把握好今天吧。(Will Rogers) 170. If you are not brave enough, no one will back you up. 你不勇敢,沒人替你堅強。171. If you don't build your dream, someone will hire you to build theirs. 如果你沒有夢想,那么你只能為別人的夢想打工。172. Beauty is all around, if you just open your heart to see. 只要你給自己機會,你會發現你的世界可以很美麗。173. The difference in winning and losing is most often...not quitting. 贏與輸的差別通常是--不放棄。(華特·迪士尼) 174. I am ordinary yet unique. 我很平凡,但我獨一無二。175. I like people who make me laugh in spite of myself. 我喜歡那些讓我笑起來的人,就算是我不想笑的時候。176. Image a new story for your life and start living it. 為你的生命想一個全新劇本,并去傾情出演吧!177. I'd rather be a happy fool than a sad sage. 做個悲傷的智者,不如做個開心的傻子。178. The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. 未來屬于那些相信夢想之美的人。(埃莉諾·羅斯福) 179. Even if you get no applause, you should accept a curtain call gracefully and appreciate your own efforts. 即使沒有人為你鼓掌,也要優雅的謝幕,感謝自己的認真付出。180. Don't let dream just be your dream. 別讓夢想只停留在夢里。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 沒有笑聲的一天是浪費了的一天。(卓別林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,見的世面多了,你會發現原來在意的那些結根本算不了什么。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功關鍵都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》 184. You can be happy no matter what. 開心一點吧,管它會怎樣。185. A good plan today is better than a perfect plan tomorrow. 今天的好計劃勝過明天的完美計劃。186. Nothing is impossible, the word itself says 'I'm possible'! 一切皆有可能!“不可能”的意思是:“不,可能。”(奧黛麗·赫本) 187. Life isn't fair, but no matter your circumstances, you have to give it your all. 生活是不公平的,不管你的境遇如何,你只能全力以赴。188. No matter how hard it is, just keep going because you only fail when you give up. 無論多么艱難,都要繼續前進,因為只有你放棄的那一刻,你才輸了。     When Paul Jobs was mustered out of the Coast Guard after World War II, he made a wager with his crewmates. They had arrived in San Francisco, where their ship was decommissioned, and Paul bet that he would find himself a wife within two weeks. He was a taut, tattooed engine mechanic, six feet tall, with a passing resemblance to James Dean. But it wasn’t his looks that got him a date with Clara Hagopian, a sweet-humored daughter of Armenian immigrants. It was the fact that he and his friends had a car, unlike the group she had originally planned to go out with that evening. Ten days later, in March 1946, Paul got engaged to Clara and won his wager. It would turn out to be a happy marriage, one that lasted until death parted them more than forty years later. Paul Reinhold Jobs had been raised on a dairy farm in Germantown, Wisconsin. Even though his father was an alcoholic and sometimes abusive, Paul ended up with a gentle and calm disposition under his leathery exterior. After dropping out of high school, he wandered through the Midwest picking up work as a mechanic until, at age nineteen, he joined the Coast Guard, even though he didn’t know how to swim. He was deployed on the USS General M. C. Meigs and spent much of the war ferrying troops to Italy for General Patton. His talent as a machinist and fireman earned him commendations, but he occasionally found himself in minor trouble and never rose above the rank of seaman. Clara was born in New Jersey, where her parents had landed after fleeing the Turks in Armenia, and they moved to the Mission District of San Francisco when she was a child. She had a secret that she rarely mentioned to anyone: She had been married before, but her husband had been killed in the war. So when she met Paul Jobs on that first date, she was primed to start a new life. Clara, however, loved San Francisco, and in 1952 she convinced her husband to move back there. They got an apartment in the Sunset District facing the Pacific, just south of Golden Gate Park, and he took a job working for a finance company as a “repo man,” picking the locks of cars whose owners hadn’t paid their loans and repossessing them. He also bought, repaired, and sold some of the cars, making a decent enough living in the process. There was, however, something missing in their lives. They wanted children, but Clara had suffered an ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized egg was implanted in a fallopian tube rather than the uterus, and she had been unable to have any. So by 1955, after nine years of marriage, they were looking to adopt a child. Like Paul Jobs, Joanne Schieble was from a rural Wisconsin family of German heritage. Her father, Arthur Schieble, had immigrated to the outskirts of Green Bay, where he and his wife owned a mink farm and dabbled successfully in various other businesses, including real estate and photoengraving. He was very strict, especially regarding his daughter’s relationships, and he had strongly disapproved of her first love, an artist who was not a Catholic. Thus it was no surprise that he threatened to cut Joanne off completely when, as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, she fell in love with Abdulfattah “John” Jandali, a Muslim teaching assistant from Syria. Jandali was the youngest of nine children in a prominent Syrian family. His father owned oil refineries and multiple other businesses, with large holdings in Damascus and Homs, and at one point pretty much controlled the price of wheat in the region. His mothe凝固的熔巖流。火星上常常有猛烈的大風,大風揚起沙塵能形成可以覆蓋火星全球的特大型沙塵暴。每次沙塵暴可持續數個星期。火星兩極的冰冠和火星大氣中含有水份。從火星表面獲得的探測數據證明,在遠古時期,火星曾經有過液態的水,而且水量特別大。[51] 土星是離太陽第六顆行星,直徑120536㎞,體積僅次于木星。主要由氫組成,還有少量的氦與微量元素,內部的核心包括巖石和冰,外圍由數層金屬氫和氣體包裹著。地球距離土星13億公里。土星的引力比地球強2.5倍,能夠牽引太陽系內其它行星,使地球處于一個橢圓軌道中運行,并且與太陽保持適當距離,適宜生命繁衍。當土星軌道傾斜20度將使地球軌道比金星軌道更接近太陽,同時,這將導致火星完全離開太陽系。[52]  土星是已知唯一密度小于水的行星,假如能夠將土星放入一個巨大的浴池之中,它將可以漂浮起來。土星有一個巨大的磁氣圈和一個狂風肆虐的大氣層,赤道附近的風速可達1800千米/時。在環繞土星運行的31顆衛星中間,土衛六是最大的一顆,比水星和月球還大,也是太陽系中唯一擁有濃厚大氣層的衛星。[53] 天王星是離太陽第七顆行星,51118km。體積約為地球的65倍,在九大行星中僅次于木星和土星。天王星的大氣層中83%是氫,15%為氦,2%為甲烷以及少量的乙炔和碳氫化合物。上層大氣層的甲烷吸收紅光,使天王星呈現藍綠色。大氣在固定緯度集結成云層,類似于木星和土星在緯線上鮮艷的條狀色帶。天王星云層的平均溫度為零下193攝氏度。質量為8.6810±13×102?kg,相當于地球質量的14.63倍。密度較小,只有1.24克/立方厘米,為海王星密度值的74.7%。[54] 恒星 恒星 海王星是離太陽的第八顆行星,直徑49532千米。海王星繞太陽運轉的軌道半徑為45億千米,公轉一周需要165年。海王星的直徑和天王星類似,質量比天王星略大一些。海王星和天王星的主要大氣成分都是氫和氦,內部結構也極為相近,所以說海王星與天王星是一對孿生兄弟。[55]  海王星有太陽系最強烈的風,測量到的時速高達2100公里。海王星云頂的溫度是-218 °C,是太陽系最冷的地區之一。海王星核心的溫度約為7000 °C,可以和太陽的表面比較。海王星在1846年9月23日被發現,是唯一利用數學預測而非有計劃的觀測發現的行星。[56] 冥王星,位于海王星以外的柯伊伯帶內側,是柯伊伯帶中已知的最大天體。[57]  直徑約為2370±20km,是地球直徑的18.5%。[58]  2006年8月24日,國際天文學聯合會大會24日投票決定,不再將傳統九大行星之一的冥王星視為行星,而將其列入“矮行星”。大會通過的決議規定,“行星”指的是圍繞太陽運轉、自身引力足以克服其剛體力而使天體呈圓球狀、能夠清除其軌道附近其他物體的天體。在太陽系傳統的“九大行星”中,只有水星、金星、地球、火星、木星、土星、天王星和海王星符合這些要求。冥王星由于其軌道與海王星的軌道相交,不符合新的行星定義,因此被自動降級為“矮行星”。[59]  冥王星的表面溫度大概在-238到-228℃之間。冥王星的成份由70%巖石和30%冰水混合而成的。地表上光亮的部分可能覆蓋著一些固體氮以及少量 衛星拍月球經過地球,可見清晰月球背面 衛星拍月球經過地球,可見清晰月球背面 [60] 的固體甲烷和一氧化碳,冥王星表面的黑暗部分可能是一些基本的有機物質或是由宇宙射線引發的光化學反應。冥王星的大氣層主要由氮和少量的一氧化碳及甲烷組成。大氣極其稀薄,地面壓強只有少量微帕。[61] 地球是離太陽第三顆行星,是我們人類的家鄉,盡管地球是太陽系中一顆普通的行星,但它在許多方面都是獨一無二的。比如,它是太陽系中唯一一顆面積大部分被水覆蓋的行星,也是目前所知唯一一顆有生命存在的星球。質量M=5.9742 ×10^24 公斤,表面溫度:t = - 30 ~ +45。[62]  英國科研人員在《天體生物學》雜志上報告說,如果沒有小行星撞擊等可能劇烈改變環境的事件發生,地球適宜人類居住的時間還剩約17.5億年,不過人為造成的氣候變化可能縮短這一時間。[63] 彗星是由灰塵和冰塊組成的太陽系中的一類小天體,繞日運動。[64]  科學家使用探測器對彗星的化學遺留物進行分析,發現其主要成份為氨、甲烷、硫化氫、氰化氫和甲醛。科學家得出結論稱,彗星的氣味聞起來像是臭雞蛋、馬尿、酒精和苦杏仁的氣味綜合。[65-66] “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希門克”彗星 “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希門克”彗星 [67] 在太陽系的周圍還包裹著一個龐大的“奧爾特云”。星云內分布著不計其數的冰塊、雪團和碎石。其中的某些會受太陽引力影響飛入內太陽系,這學說,在原有的軌道(或稱小天體軌道)上又增加了更多的天體運行軌道。這一模式稱每顆行星都沿著一個小軌道作圓周運行,而小軌道又沿著該行星的大軌道繞地球作圓周運動。幾百年之后,這一模式的漏洞越來越明顯。科學家們又在這個模式上增加了許多軌道,行星就這樣沿著一道又一道的軌道作圓周運動。哥白尼想用“現代”(16世紀的)技術來改進托勒密的測量結果,以期取消一些小軌道。在長達近20年的時間里,哥白尼不辭辛勞日夜測量行星的位置,但其測量獲得的結果仍然與托勒密的天體運行模式沒有多少差別。哥白尼想知道在另一個運行著的行星上觀察這些行星的運行情況會是什么樣的。基于這種設想,哥白尼萌發了一個念頭:假如地球在運行中,那么這些行星的運行看上去會是什么情況呢?這一設想在他腦海里變得清晰起來了。一年里,哥白尼在不同的時間、不同的距離從地球上觀察行星,每一個行星的情況都不相同,這是他意識到地球不可能位于星星軌道的中心。經過20年的觀測,哥白尼發現唯獨太陽的周年變化不明顯。這意味著地球和太陽的距離始終沒有改變。如果地球不是宇宙的中心,那么宇宙的中心就是太陽。的發現才使牛頓有能力確定運動定律和萬有引力定律。哥白尼的日心宇宙體系既然是時代的產物,它就不能不受到時代的限制。反對神學的不徹底性,同時表現在哥白尼的某些觀點上,他的體系是存在缺陷的。哥白尼所指的宇宙是局限在一個小的范圍內的,具體來說,他的宇宙結構就是今天我們所熟知的太陽系,即以太陽為中心的天體系統。宇宙既然有它的中心,就必須有它的邊界,哥白尼雖然否定了托勒玫的“九重天”,但他卻保留了一層恒星天,盡管他回避了宇宙是否有限這個問題,但實際上他是相信恒星天球是宇宙的“外殼”,他仍然相信天體只能按照所謂完美的圓形軌道運動,所以哥白尼的宇宙體系,仍然包含著不動的中心天體。但是作為近代自然科學的奠基人,哥白尼的歷史功績是偉大的。確認地球不是宇宙的中心,而是行星之一,從而掀起了一場天文學上根本性的革命,是人類探求客觀真理道路上的里程碑。哥白尼的偉大成就,不僅鋪平了通向近代天文學的道路,而且開創了整個自然界科學向前邁進的新時代。從哥白尼時代起,脫離教會束縛的自然科學和哲學開始獲得飛躍的發展。哥白尼的科學成就,是他所處時代的產物,又轉過來推動了時代的發展。順應時代變化 十五、六世紀的歐洲,正是從封建社會向資本主義社會轉變的關鍵時期,在這一二百年間,社會發生了巨大的變化。14世紀ndali soon after. She held out hope, she would later tell family members, sometimes tearing up at the memory, that once they were married, she could get their 別讓夢想只停留在夢里。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 沒有笑聲的一天是浪費了的一天。(卓別林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,見的世面多了,你會發現原來在意的那些結根本算不了什么。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功關鍵都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》 184. You can be happy no matter what. 開心一點吧,管它會怎樣。baby boy back. Arthur Schieble died in August 1955, after the adoption was finalized. Just after Christmas that year, Joanne and Abdulfattah were married in St. Philip the Apostle Catholic Church in Green Bay. He got his PhD in international politics the next year, and then they had another child, a girl named Mona. After she and Jandali divorced in 1962, Joanne embarked on a dreamy and peripatetic life that her daughter, who grew up to become the acclaimed novelist Mona Simpson, would capture in her book Anywhere but Here. Because Steve’s adoption had been closed, it would be twenty years before they would all find each other. Steve Jobs knew from an early age that he was adopted. “My parents were very open with me about that,” he recalled. He had a vivid memory of sitting on the lawn of his house, when he was six or seven years old, telling the girl who lived across the street. “So does that mean your real parents didn’t want you?” the girl asked. “Lightning bolts went off in my head,” according to Jobs. “I remember running into the house, crying. And my parents said, ‘No, you have to understand.’ They were very serious and looked me straight in the eye. They said, ‘We specifically picked you out.’ Both of my parents said that and repeated it slowly for me. And they put an emphasis on every word in that sentence.” Abandoned. Chosen. Special. Those concepts became part of who Jobs was and how he regarded himself. His closest friends think that the knowledge that he was given up at birth left some scars. “I think his desire for complete control of whatever he makes derives directly from his personality and the fact that he was abandoned at birth,” said one longtime colleague, Del Yocam. “He wants to control his environment, and he sees the product as an extension of himself.” Greg Calhoun, who became close to Jobs right after college, saw another effect. “Steve talked to me a lot about being abandoned and the pain that caused,” he said. “It made him independent. He followed the beat of a different drummer, and that came from being in a different world than he was born into.” Later in life, when he was the same age his biological father had been when he abandoned him, Jobs would father and abandon a child of his own. (He eventually took responsibility for her.) Chrisann Brennan, the mother of that child, said that being put up for adoption left Jobs “full of broken glass,” and it helps to explain some of his behavior. “He who is abandoned is an abandoner,” she said. Andy Hertzfeld, who worked with Jobs at Apple in the early 1980s, is among the few who remained close to both Brennan and Jobs. “The key question about Steve is why he can’t control himself at times from being so reflexively cruel and harmful to some people,” he said. “That goes back to being abandoned at birth. The real underlying problem was the theme of abandonment in Steve’s life.” Jobs dismissed this. “There’s some notion that because I was abandoned, I worked very hard so I could do well and make my parents wish they had me back, or some such nonsense, but that’s ridiculous,” he insisted. “Knowing I was adopted may have made me feel more independent, but I have never felt abandoned. I’ve always felt special. My parents made me feel special.” He would later bristle whenever anyone referred to Paul and Clara Jobs as his “adoptive” parents or implied that they were not his “real” parents. “They were my parents 1,000%,” he said. When speaking about his biological parents, on the other hand, he was curt: “They were my sperm and egg bank. That’s not harsh, it’s just the way it was, a sperm bank thing, nothing more.” Silicon Valley The childhood that Paul and Clara Jobs created for their new son was, in many ways, a stereotype of the late 1950s. When Steve was two they adopted a girl they named Patty, and three years later they moved to a tract house in the suburbs. The finance company where Paul worked as a repo man, CIT, had transferred him down to its Palo Alto office, but he could not afford to live there, so they landed in a subdivision in Mountain View, a less expensive town just to the south. There Paul tried to pass along his love of mechanics and cars. “Steve, this is your workbench now,” he said as he marked off a section of the table in their garage. Jobs remembered being impressed by his father’s focus on craftsmanship. “I thought my dad’s sense of design was pretty good,” he said, “because he knew how to build anything. If we needed a cabinet, he would build it. When he built our fence, he gave me a hammer so I could work with him.” Fifty years later the fence still surrounds the back and side yards of the house in Mountain View. As Jobs showed it off to me, he caressed the stockade panels and recalled a lesson that his father implanted deeply in him. It was important, his father said, to craft the backs of cabinets and fences properly, even though they were hidden. “He loved doing things right. He even cared about the look of the parts you couldn’t see.” His father continued to refurbish and resell used cars, and he festooned the garage with pictures of his favorites. He would point out the detailing of the design to his son: the lines, the vents, the chrome, the trim of the seats. After work each day, he would change into his dungarees and retreat to the garage, often with Steve tagging along. “I figured I could get him nailed down with a little mechanical ability, but he really wasn’t interested in getting his hands dirty,” Paul later recalled. “He never really cared too much about m189. It requires hard work to give off an appearance of effortlessness. 你必須十分努力,才能看起來毫不費力。190. Life is like riding a bicycle.To keep your balance,you must keep moving. 人生就像騎單車,只有不斷前進,才能保持平衡。(愛因斯坦) 191. Be thankful for what you have.You'll end up having more. 擁有一顆感恩的心,最終你會得到更多。192. Beauty is how you feel inside, and it reflects in your eyes. 美是一種內心的感覺,并反映在你的眼睛里。(索菲亞·羅蘭) 193. Friendship doubles your joys, and divides your sorrows. 朋友的作用,就是讓你快樂加倍,痛苦減半。194. When you long for something sincerely, the whole world will help you. 當你真心渴望某樣東西時,整個宇宙都會來幫忙。echanical things.” “I wasn’t that into fixing cars,” Jobs admitted. “But I was eager to hang out with my dad.” Even as he was growing more aware that he had been adopted, he was becoming more attached to his father. One day when he was about eight, he discovered a photograph of his father from his time in the Coast Guard. “He’s in the engine room, and he’s got his shirt off and looks like James Dean. It was one of those Oh wow moments for a kid. Wow, oooh, my parents were actually once very young and really good-looking.” Through cars, his father gave Steve his first exposure to electronics. “My dad did not have a deep understanding of electronics, but he’d encountered it a lot in automobiles and other things he would fix. He showed me the rudiments of electronics, and I got very interested in that.” Even more interesting were the trips to scavenge for parts. “Every weekend, there’d be a junkyard trip. We’d be looking for a generator, a carburetor, all sorts of components.” He remembered watching his father negotiate at the counter. “He was a good bargainer, because he knew better than the guys at the counter what the parts should cost.” This helped fulfill the pledge his parents made when he was adopted. “My college fund came from my dad paying $50 for a Ford Falcon or some other beat-up car that didn’t run, working on it for a few weeks, and selling it for $250—and not telling the IRS.” The Jobses’ house and the others in their neighborhood were built by the real estate developer Joseph Eichler, whose company spawned more than eleven thousand homes in various California subdivisions between 1950 and 1974. Inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright’s vision of simple modern homes for the American “everyman,” Eichler built inexpensive houses that featured floor-to-ceiling glass walls, open floor plans, exposed post-and-beam construction, concrete slab floors, and lots of sliding glass doors. “Eichler did a great thing,” Jobs said on one of our walks around the neighborhood. “His houses were smart and cheap and good. They brought clean design and simple taste to lower-income people. They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors. You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids.” Jobs said that his appreciation for Eichler homes instilled in him a passion for making nicely designed products for the mass market. “I love it when you can bring really great design and simple capability to something that doesn’t cost much,” he said as he pointed out the clean elegance of the houses. “It was the original vision for Apple. That’s what we tried to do with the first Mac. That’s what we did with the iPod.” Across the street from the Jobs family lived a man who had become successful as a real estate agent. “He wasn’t that bright,” Jobs recalled, “but he seemed to be making a fortune. So my dad thought, ‘I can do that.’ He worked so hard, I remember. He took these night classes, passed the license test, and got into real estate. Then the bottom fell out of the market.” As a result, the family found itself financially strapped for a year or so while Steve was in elementary school. His mother took a job as a bookkeeper for Varian Associates, a company that made scientific instruments, and they took out a second mortgage. One day his fourth-grade teacher asked him, “What is it you don’t understand about the universe?” Jobs replied, “I don’t understand why all of a sudden my dad is so broke.” He was proud that his father never adopted a servile attitude or slick style that may have made him a better salesman. “You had to suck up to people to sell real estate, and he wasn’t good at that and it wasn’t in his nature. I admired him for that.” Paul Jobs went back to being a mechanic. His father was calm and gentle, traits that his son later praised more than emulated. He was also resolute. Jobs described one exampl What made the neighborhood different from the thousands of other spindly-tree subdivisions across America was that even the ne’er-do-wells tended to be engineers. “When we moved here, there were apricot and plum orchards on all of these corners,” Jobs recalled. “But it was beginning to boom because of military investment.” He soaked up the history of the valley and developed a yearning to play his own role. Edwin Land of Polaroid later told him about being asked by Eisenhower to help build the U-2 spy plane cameras to see how real the Soviet threat was. The film was dropped in canisters and returned to the NASA Ames Research Center in Sunnyvale, not far from where Jobs lived. “The first computer terminal I ever saw was when my dad brought me to the Ames Center,” he said. “I fell totally in love with it.” Other defense contractors sprouted nearby during the 1950s. The Lockheed Missiles and Space Division, which built submarine-launched ballistic missiles, was founded in 1956 next to the NASA Center; by the time Jobs moved to the area four years later, it employed twenty thousand people. A few hundred yards away, Westinghouse built facilities that produced tubes and electrical transformers for the missile systems. “You had all these military companies on the cutting edge,” he recalled. “It was mysterious and high-tech and made living here very exciting.” In the wake of the defense industries there arose a booming economy based on technology. Its roots stretched back to 1938, when David Packard and his new wife moved into a house in Palo Alto that had a shed where his friend Bill Hewlett was soon ensconced. The house had a garage—an appendage that would prove both useful and iconic in the valley—in which they tinkered around until they had their first product, an audio oscillator. By the 1950s, Hewlett-Packard was a fast-growing company making technical instruments. Fortunately there was a place nearby for entrepreneurs who had outgrown their garages. In a move that would help transform the area into the cradle of the tech revolution, Stanford University’s dean of engineering, Frederick Terman, created a seven-hundred-acre industrial park on university land for private companies that could commercialize the ideas of his students. Its first tenant was Varian Associates, where Clara Jobs worked. “Terman came up with this great idea that did more than anything to cause the tech industry to grow up here,” Jobs said. By the time Jobs was ten, HP had nine thousand employees and was the blue-chip company where every engineer seeking financial stability wanted to work. The most important technology for the region’s growth was, of course, the semiconductor. William Shockley, who had been one of the inventors of the transistor at Bell Labs in New Jersey, moved out to Mountain View and, in 1956, started a company to build transistors using silicon rather than the more expensive germanium that was then commonly used. But Shockley became increasingly erratic and abandoned his silicon transistor project, which led eight of his engineers—most notably Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore—to break away to form Fairchild Semiconductor. That company grew to twelve thousand employees, but it fragmented in 1968, when Noyce lost a power struggle to become CEO. He took Gordon Moore and founded a company that they called Integrated Electronics Corporation, which they soon smartly abbreviated to Intel. Their third employee was Andrew Grove, who later would grow the company by shifting its focus from memory chips to microprocessors. Within a few years there would be more than fifty companies in the area making semiconductors. The exponential growth of this industry was correlated with the phenomenon famously discovered by Moore, who in 1965 drew a graph of the speed of integrated circuits, based on the number of transistors that could be placed on a chip, and showed that it doubled about every two years, a trajectory that could be expected to continue. This was reaffirmed in 1971, when Intel was able to etch a complete central processing unit onto one chip, the Intel 4004, tronic amplifier. “So I raced home, and I told my dad that he was wrong.” “No, it needs an amplifier,” his father assured him. When Steve protested otherwise, his father said he was crazy. “It can’t work without an amplifier. There’s some trick.” “I kept saying no to my dad, telling him he had to see it, and finally he actually walked down with me and saw it. And he said, ‘Well I’ll be a bat out of hell.’” Jobs recalled the incident vividly because it was his first realization that his father did not know everything. Then a more disconcerting discovery began to dawn on him: He was smarter than his parents. He had always admired his father’s competence and savvy. “He was not an educated man, but I had always thought he was pretty damn smart. He didn’t read much, but he could do a lot. Almost everything mechanical, he could figure it out.” Yet the carbon microphone incident, Jobs said, began a jarring process of realizing that he was in fact more clever and quick than his parents. “It was a very big moment that’s burned into my mind. When I realized that I was smarter than my parents, I felt tremendous shame for having thought that. I will never forget that moment.” This discovery, he later told friends, along with the fact that he was adopted, made him feel apart—detached and separate—from both his family and the world. Another layer of awareness occurred soon after. Not only did he discover that he was brighter than his parents, but he discovered that they knew this. Paul and Clara Jobs were loving parents, and they were willing to adapt their lives to suit a son who was very smart—and also willful. They would go to great lengths to accommodate him. And soon Steve discovered this fact as well. “Both my parents got me. They felt a lot of responsibility once they sensed that I was special. They found ways to keep feeding me stuff and putting me in better schools. They were willing to defer to my needs.” So he grew up not only with a sense of having once been abandoned, but also with a sense that he was special. In his own mind, that was more important in the formation of his personality. School Even before Jobs started elementary school, his mother had taught him how to read. This, however, led to some problems once he got to school. “I was kind of bored for the first few years













































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